President Obama announced a wide range of executive actions (EAs) on immigration in late November, including an expansion of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, deferrals for family members of citizens and lawful permanent residents (LPRs), and potential eligibility for certain public benefits. The EAs do not substantively alter federal immigration law by, for example, creating new immigrant categories or giving undocumented immigrants a new means of obtaining lawful status, but they do grant millions of people a reprieve from the threat of deportation and the opportunity to work.
The President announced the EAs on November 20, 2014, after a long period of inaction by Congress. The U.S. Senate passed the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act of 2013, in a bipartisan vote on June 27, 2013. The bill would create new opportunities for lawful immigration status while enhancing immigration and border enforcement. It would crack down on abuses in the H-1B visa system and provide additional visas for students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields at U.S. colleges and universities. The bill never has even been introduced in the House of Representatives.
The EAs will expand eligibility for DACA, the program that allows undocumented immigrants who entered the U.S. as children and meet other criteria, about 90 days after the announcement date. The upper age limit, currently set at people born on or after June 15, 1981, will be removed, and the continuous presence requirement will be moved up from June 15, 2007 to January 1, 2010. The program still will not be available to anyone who entered the U.S. after that date.